In a series of blogs, this is part one of five. For the purpose of written communication skills, I am reviewing the rules of how words are put together. Starting with the basics- let’s review nouns and pronouns. My reference for all of the below is The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th Edition.
Noun: A word that names something whether abstract or concrete.
Types of nouns:
- Common Nouns: The informal name of one item in a class or group (e.g. a chemical, a river, a pineapple etc.)
- Proper Nouns: A person’s name or the official name of a place or thing (Ayeesha S. Kanji, Los Angeles, Toronto etc.) and always capitalized.
- Count Nouns: Singular or plural form and expresses enumerable things (e.g. newspapers (newspaper) dictionaries (dictionary) etc.)
- Mass Nouns: Denotes something uncountable, either because it is abstract (evidence, cowardice) or refers to an indeterminate aggregation of people or things (the faculty, the bourgeoisie)
- Case Property: Denotes relationship between a noun (or pronoun) and other words in a sentence. Nouns are either nominative, objective, and possessive.
- Gender Property: Classifies noun into masculine, feminine and neuter.
- Number Property: Shows whether one or more object is referred to- clock (singular) versus clocks (plural)
- Person Property: Shows whether an object is speaking (first person) spoken to (second person) or spoken about (third person).
Pronoun: A word used as a substitute for a noun or, sometimes, another pronoun. It follows a previous mentioned word, to avoid repetition. A pronoun follows the word it refers to in a sentence.
- Personal – I, you, he, she, it, we and they
- Demonstrative – that and this
- Interrogative – what, which and who
- Relative – that, what, which and who
- Indefinite – another, any, each, either and none
- Adjective – any, each, that, this, what and which
Personal Pronouns: Indicates first person, second person and third person
- Nominative first person- I, you, he she, it, we, you and they
- Objective second person- Me, you, him, her, it, us, you and them
- Possessive third person- My, mine, your, yours, his, her, hers, its, our, ours, you, yours, their, theirs
Possessive Pronouns: Used as limiting adjectives to qualify nouns
Demonstrative Pronoun: Points directly to its antecedent.
- This and That (singular antecedents)
- These and Those (plural antecedents)
- This and These (Objects in the form of time, space, or thought)
- That and Those (Objects comparatively remote in time, space or thought)
Interrogative Pronoun: Asks a question.
- Who (Nominative) Whom (Objective) Whose (possessive)
Relative Pronoun: Introduces a subordinate (or relative) clause and relates in to the main clause.
- Who (first, second and third person)
- Which (animal or thing)
- What (nonliving thing)
- That (person, animal or thing and first, second or third person
Indefinite Pronoun: Generally or indefinitely represents an object, usually one that has already been identified or doesn’t need specific identification.
- Any (anybody, anyone, anything)
- Each (everybody, everyone, everything)
- None (nobody, no one)
- One (oneself)
- Some (somebody, someone)
Adjective Pronoun: Functions as a noun modifier, all pronouns other than personal pronouns, “who,” and “none” may serve as adjectives
- Those windows (those)
- Some coyotes (some)